. the result of a hurricane and or fire. The spruce bark beetle (SBB) has become a very serious cause of tree mortality in the spruce forests of Southcentral Alaska. Pörtner DE . The spruce beetle is distributed in spruce forests throughout western North America, across the boreal forest of Canada, and into the northeastern United States. Temperature profiles that promote cold-temperature survival may not also result in appropriate developmental timing, and vice versa. AS Cold tolerance. Barbara J. Bentz, Jacques Régnière, Christopher J Fettig, E. Matthew Hansen, Jane L. Hayes, Jeffrey A. Hicke, Rick G. Kelsey, Jose F. Negrón, Steven J. Seybold, Climate Change and Bark Beetles of the Western United States and Canada: Direct and Indirect Effects, BioScience, Volume 60, Issue 8, September 2010, Pages 602–613, https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2010.60.8.6. . . . Upon colonizing a tree, bark beetles introduce an array of fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and mites that can significantly influence their fitness (Hofstetter et al. Hofstetter Given assumptions of the seasonality model, these results suggest that substantial warming would disrupt the emergence timing and generation duration required for population success. BJ forests on and near the Kenai Peninsula, Developing mountain pine beetle larvae acquire vital nutrients not found in plant tissue by feeding on two fungi, Grosmannia clavigera and Ophiostoma montium, the hyphae of which spread throughout the phloem and sapwood following inoculation into the tree by attacking beetles. Logan G This is particularly important because new research shows that trees that have better access to snowpack and snowmelt throughout the summer are better able to defend themselves from beetles during such outbreaks. J PS Researchers Stephen Pacala and Robert Socolow at Princeton University have suggested one approach that they call "stabilization wedges." As a individual who has experience with the removal of elm trees due One that occurred in the 1940s was probably linked to wood harvesting that was done to build the Haines Highway. There is clearly a need, however, for a better understanding and more refined models that integrate indirect effects of climate change on host trees with bark beetle population success, as well as interactions among bark beetle outbreaks and other forest disturbances. ing biotic agents affecting forests globally (Anderegg et al. Berg Wish the press would force the government to act and inform the This model describes the dynamic temperature-dependent process of polyhydric alcohol accumulation and loss influencing mountain pine beetle supercooling capacity. Although both fungi are important, evidence suggests that one species (G. clavigera) supports faster brood development, larger body size, and higher brood production than does the other (Bleiker and Six 2007). Two recent studies shed light on how climate change is helping fuel the assault of bark beetles on U.S. forests, and what’s likely to happen in a world that continues to warm. Krokene RB The dead trees that have fallen are beginning to decompose, and as this cycle in the forest continues, life springs anew. GE . Holliday Stephens Ongoing research in interior Alaska is suggesting that warmer and drier summers over the last three decades is stressing white spruce, setting the potential for widespread infestation by spruce bark beetle, spruce budworm, or perhaps other insects. Birch Some of these trees have begun to fall down, adding to the rugged topography of the forest floor. In the mountain pine beetle, for example, life stage-specific developmental thresholds aid in synchronizing adult emergence at appropriate times of the year (Powell and Logan 2005). SJ Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. KF LO Jorgensen I . Host-tree distribution. 2006). 1986). Schen-Langenheim The geographic distribution of the beetle generally reflects the range of its primary hosts (table 1), although the range of lodgepole pine extends further to the north and ponderosa and other pine species further to the south than where mountain pine beetles are currently found. SL J KF We explore the potential effects of changing climate on bark beetle outbreak dynamics using two case studies: (1) spruce beetle and (2) mountain pine beetle. WJ The ecological roles and temperature dependencies of the majority of bark beetle community associates are not well understood, which hampers full comprehension of the consequences of climate change on bark beetle population dynamics. In Katmai’s forests, the spruce bark beetle population increased a whopping 300% from 2005 to 2006, accorrding to data from the US Forest Service. Extensive spruce beetle outbreaks have occurred throughout the contiguous western United States, Alaska, and western Canada during the past decade, affecting more than 3 million hectares (ha) of forest (USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, and Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service). Dry heat increases bark beetle bite Date: May 2, 2012 Source: Springer Science+Business Media Summary: Climate change puts spruce forests at greater risk of bark beetle attacks. K A 2016 aerial survey conducted by the Forest Service showed a roughly 35% increase in spruce beetle activity as compared with new activity in 2015. De Volder RF Canadell Little is known about developmental strategies of the many bark beetle species indigenous to the southwestern United States and Mexico. CM Because benefits to the mountain pine beetle are not the same for each fungal species, shifts in temperature and precipitation associated with climate change could indirectly affect mountain pine beetle population success through direct effects on fungal symbionts. studies indicate that regional-scale spruce bark beetle outbreaks occurred in the 1820s, 1880s, and 1970s. Are these trees a fire hazard? . Observed (1961–1990) and predicted (2001–2030, 2071–2100) normals were used to generate stochastic daily minimum and maximum temperatures (Régnière and St-Amant 2007) for input to the spruce beetle and mountain pine beetle models. The fate of any individual species will depend on multiple factors, including phenotypic variation, fecundity, and biotic interactions (Aitken et al. Climate change has amplified eruptive bark beetle outbreaks over recent decades, including spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis ).However, for projecting future bark beetle dynamics there is a critical lack of evidence to differentiate how outbreaks have been promoted by direct effects of warmer temperatures on beetle life cycles vs indirect effects of drought on host susceptibility. M CA Rapid genetic adaptation of insects to seasonal changes in temperature has already been documented (Balanyá et al. An updated modeling framework that addresses these concerns is being developed. Page Our assessment assumes no change in current tree distributions, and that thermal conditions conducive to bark beetle population success result in increased levels of tree mortality, although we do not explicitly model the impacts to forests. Holzapfel A TR Le Quéré Each fungus possesses different thermal ranges for optimal growth (Rice et al. Holsten Global Warming is Doubling Bark Beetle Mating, Boosting Tree Attacks Up To 60-Fold, Study Finds. Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) outbreaks are important disturbances affecting subalpine forests of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in the southern Rocky Mountains. JD Thormann . Cold hardening is the dynamic acquisition of cold tolerance through biochemical and physiological processes, and is most often triggered by cold temperatures (Lee 1989). Tauber Drought beget beetles. SJ Approximately 190,450 acres of forest in Katmai National Park and Preserve are now touched by spruce bark beetle-related tree die-off. Across North America, the rise in temperatures is projected to exceed global mean increases, particularly at high latitudes and elevations, and more frequent extreme weather events are expected (IPCC 2007). Kubo Hicke Discussions with Robert Progar and John Lundquist and comments from Craig Allen and several anonymous reviewers greatly improved this article. Bleiker We present two case studies to illustrate the potential impacts of global warming on the population outbreak dynamics of eruptive bark beetles. JA HO In the United States (US), species in the genera Dendroctonus and Ips are the primary culprits. Diapause is a dynamic, endocrine-mediated and environmentally driven dormancy that occurs at a specific life stage. P The polyphagy exhibited by the roundheaded pine beetle and other bark beetles currently found in Mexico suggests they may do well in pine species they would encounter in a northward range expansion, potentially invading niches vacated by beetle species whose population success is disrupted by climate change. MP . P 2008, McDowell et al. Others, including the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis [Kirby], and mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, require one, two, or even three years to produce a single generation, depending on the temperature profile at a particular locale within their large geographic ranges. Soltis Sullivan 2010). CA Scientists warn that some forest ecosystems may never recover. Gibson Witcosky Spruce beetles can take one or two years to complete their life cycle in Alaska, with temperature playing a major role in how fast they develop. S This massive spruce beetle outbreak has been attributed to both an aging forest with high-density stands of large-diameter, slow growing spruce, and a warming trend that enabled the spruce beetle to proliferate while leaving drought stressed trees susceptible to beetle attack. DPW 1, Climate extremes: Observations, modeling, and impacts, The effectiveness of vegetation management practices for prevention and control of bark beetle infestations in coniferous forests of the western and southern United States, Anatomical and chemical defenses of conifer bark against bark beetles and other pests, Physical effects of weather events on the abundance and diversity of insects in North American forests, Mountain Pine Beetle Impacts in High-Elevation Five-Needle Pines: Current Trends and Challenges, US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Northern Region, Glacial vicariance in the Pacific Northwest: Evidence from a lodgepole pine mitochondrial DNA minisatellite for multiple genetically distinct and widely separated refugia. mortality. ME Klepzig Probability values were linearized by logistic transformation before interpolation and before the maps were back transformed. Powell VH AG Holsten Régnière 2006, Cardoza et al. Scott B Karl NPS Photo/A. 2007). Easterling Mountain pine beetle. Spruce beetle model results. ABSTRACT: More than 85% of the mountainous spruce forest of the Bavarian Forest National Park died after bark beetle attack during the last decade. The mountain pine beetle and whitebark pine waltz: Has the music changed? Burnside Spruce bark beetles have boomed in Alaska thanks to 20 years of warm summers. Download this stock image: Alaska. RE . BJ BJ Raske In addition to predicting the probability of beetles developing in a single year, as described above for the spruce beetle, a constraint on the timing of adult emergence is included in the model to further describe the adaptive nature of a particular temperature regime to the mass attack process and subsequent population survival. AL Aitken In response to an approximately 2°C increase in temperature, significant changes in community composition occurred over the past several thousand years, including the formation of new communities, many of which no longer exist today (Shugart 2003). . Driving to Wind Cave National park, I was shocked to see the tree Y Billings The insects have chewed up 4 million acres of spruce trees. Taylor Black Spruce trees killed by the Spruce Bark Beetle, near Portage glacier, Alaska. 2009, Bentz et al. We ran models for 25,000 simulation points across North America, north of Mexico, with an emphasis on mountainous and forested areas. Although not all species have been investigated, diapause has been demonstrated or suggested to exist in five bark beetle species indigenous to western North America: (1) fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte (Scott and Berryman 1972); (2) spruce beetle (Hansen et al. Buffo Our modeling results provide some insight into concerns expressed about the potential for mountain pine beetle range expansion across the boreal pine forests of central Canada and into pine forests of central and eastern United States. M . Each strategy may be differentially affected by climate change. EM 1991). Y 99613. 2008). 2007). By Ivar Ekman. RA 2007). S If we assume that current tree distributions are driven by nonclimatic biotic factors such as bark beetles in addition to climate, models used to forecast specific tree distributions may already include an inherent measure of the influence of bark beetles on tree species distributions. We used measurements of tree rings to detect such growth releases and reconstruct the history of spruce beetle outbreaks at 23 mature spruce (Picea spp.) Fettig By Ivar Ekman. 2002). May 2, 2007 ; VRETA KLOSTER, Sweden — For Goran Samuelsson, the proud owner of 70 hectares of majestic spruce … Neilson Campbell K Yeh During the same period, the areas inhabited by ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., and Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco, hosts of several bark beetle species, are projected to increase by 11% and 7%, respectively (Rehfeldt et al. Adult beetles emerge in the spring and bore through the bark of a new host tree. An outbreak started in the 1980s in Southcentral Alaska and continued until 2003 affecting over 1.3 million hectares of forest with >90% of the trees killed in many stands. To compensate, insects consume more but grow more slowly, a trade-off with the potential to disrupt phenological synchrony important to bark beetle survival, in addition to prolonging exposure to mortality agents. Vandygriff Dworschak K. (2013) Ecophysiology of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.): ... Krokene P. et al (2011) Modelling the potential impact of global warming on Ips typographus voltinism and reproductive diapause. CC We present two case studies to illustrate the potential impacts of global warming on the population outbreak dynamics of eruptive bark beetles. Particular places of new activity include the areas along the North Arm of Naknek Lake and north of Lake Coville, east of the American River. . BA et al. Ryan Raffa 2007). As temperatures rise throughout this century, the area suitable for both adaptive seasonality and low-temperature survival is predicted to grow, although results are highly spatially variable (figures 2b, 2e, 3b, 3e). 2008). Hydraulic failure may be further amplified when water transport is interrupted by symbiotic fungi inoculated into trees during the bark beetle attack process (McDowell et al. Alaska had an unusually cold January this year, but the state is warming twice as fast as the global average. Reboletti Farrell Ongoing research in interior Alaska is suggesting that warmer and drier summers over the last three decades is stressing white spruce, setting the potential for widespread infestation by spruce bark beetle, spruce budworm, or perhaps other insects. LaValle In this way climate change will continue to alter the makeup and appearance of Katmai’s forests. Skov G C 2001). Lee Strong climatic warming appears to have accelerated the recent outbreak, probably through drought-stress of large trees. Moser R TE Aukema EM H 2009). forests on and near the Kenai Peninsula, . Macías-Sámano Mattson In the United States (US), species in the genera Dendroctonus and Ips are the primary culprits. As Alaska continues to experience a warming climate recent studies also indicate that spruce bark beetle outbreaks may become more frequent. Moser DW JG Those days are gone for ever. MJ ET The higher temperature thresholds serve to synchronize individuals during autumn, as temperatures decrease, and also prevent development to the cold-intolerant pupal life stage (Logan and Bentz 1999). Balanyá This is particularly important. Their dry branches creak as they sway in the wind. For example, spruce beetles have specialized body structures to carry associated nematodes (Cardoza et al. Reproduction and development of the eastern larch beetle, Insect cold-hardiness: To freeze or not to freeze, Atlas of United States Trees, vol. Developmental life-history strategies have evolved to maintain appropriate seasonality, and higher temperatures may not always translate into population growth or range expansion without adaptation to rapidly changing environmental conditions, a phenomenon documented in several insect species (Bradshaw and Holzapfel 2006). SG 2008), undoubtedly will also be influenced by abiotic factors associated with climate change. 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