The studies of incidence of PD in African American patients that have been performed thus far are so variable in design and methodology that meta-analyses are unrevealing. There was no association between income, education level, or geographic area of residence. 6751 Tepper Drive , In 1817, the English surgeon James Parkinson reported that some patients with a … Many studies have consistently shown that elevated uric acid levels are correlated with lower risk of PD in white men [29]. Ross GW 1. Jain S This was a prospective study examining risk factors for stroke that had approximately the same number of African Americans and white patients [16]. , , African Americans with PD are also less likely to be prescribed physical therapy and occupational therapy as compared to white patients [45]. Glass G Popejoy AB Guo X (2018) Cognitive aging in Black and White Americans: Cognition, cognitive decline, and incidence of Alzheimer disease dementia. Schootman M Nat Rev Neurol 12, 65–66. , Research in African Americans with Parkinson’s disease. , , European Community Concerted Action on the Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease. Satterfield S , (2014) The modern pre-levodopa era of Parkinson’s disease: Insights into motor complications from sub-Saharan Africa. Another source of publicly available healthcare data in the United States is the Veterans Administration (VA). Mosley TH , Medicare is government subsidized healthcare in the United States that is available to disabled persons and to those above the age of 65. Bacon JA , Healthcare access is a complex concept that includes not only economic resources and insurance status, but also organizational and socio-cultural barriers that can limit utilization of available services [12]. , BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. In general, African Americans have been shown to have less access to healthcare than whites in the United States [11]. Tagged ethnic inequalities, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, neurologist visits, racial disparities. Bruce SS Dahodwala N Bonetti A The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with PD were thoroughly reviewed by movement disorders neurologists in order to verify the diagnosis using established diagnostic criteria. Your arms may not swing when you walk. Evanoff BA Dahodwala and colleagues examined differences between Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) part II (self-report of symptoms) and UPDRS part III (physician examination) in African Americans and whites in the VA system [47]. Gruber-Baldini AL The investigators of these studies understand that there is general mistrust in the African American community toward medical research and have put forth specific and concerted effort into building relationships with community members in order to build a trusting, collaborative alliance. Clin Trials 9, 188–197. Morgan M Thacker EL , , In Parkinson’s disease, race matters. Weuve J In PD specifically, Medicare data were reviewed and it was found that African Americans had the lowest rates of survival among racial groups studied, as well as the highest rates of dementia [22]. Harris TB Similar efforts will need to be made to foster relationships between community leaders and members and those attempting to do PD research in collaboration with this community in order to obtain useful results. Chen H Kung N Vassar S Lynch EB Chen CC Xie M , Gibson B In addition, the findings showed that patients of lower socioeconomic status were less likely to receive PD medications, and that PD patients who were not seeing a neurologist were also significantly less likely to receive more than one PD medication [17]. Fox J Guo X In order to attempt to remove insurance status as a potential confounding factor in calculating prevalence and incidence, all patients within the Kaiser Permanente system were screened for PD over a period of several years [13]. Chan AK , McGovern RA , Brown LT , Sheehy JP , Zacharia BE , Mikell CB , Bruce SS , Ford B , McKhann GM 2nd (2014) Disparities in access to deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson disease: Interaction between African American race and Medicaid use. (2006) Malignant melanoma and other types of cancer preceding Parkinson disease. , a few words should be emphasized in Future research, as there are genetic mutations are. 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